I recently got a new Raspberry Pi 4. Since it has gigabit ethernet and USB 3, I thought it would make a perfect Deluge seedbox (you know, for Ubuntu and Rasbian ISOs and the like). Here’s how I setup Deluge and OpenVPN.


  • Raspberry Pi running Rasbian Buster, preferably a clean headless install.
  • USB Hard Drive
  • Private Internet Access VPN account

Update apt

Update the system to the newest software packages before installing anything new:

sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get upgrade

Hard Drive Setup

IMPORTANT: These steps will delete any data present on your drive!

Plug the drive into your Raspberry Pi. We need to know where it is located. Run the following command and look for your USB drive:

sudo fdisk -l

In this case, my USB drive was /dev/sdb. Now we need to format it:

sudo fdisk /dev/sdb

Now let’s create a filesystem:

sudo mkfs.ext4 /dev/sdb

We want the drive mounted on boot. We need the UUID:

sudo blkid | grep /dev/sdb

We need a destination to mount the drive. This is the path you will use to access files on the drive. In my case, I have a 4TB Western Digital Passport drive, so I’ve named the directory to match. You can replace passport-4tb with something like usb1, etc:

sudo mkdir /media/passport-4tb

Add the drive to fstab. Open the file:

sudo vim /etc/fstab

Add something like the following. Replace the UUID below with the UUID from above, and if you didn’t use /media/passport-4tb as the directory, change that as well:

# Black WD Passport 4tb
UUID="5a11126d-4c6d-4e13-8dd8-a1e7b303648d" /media/passport-4tb ext4 defaults,errors=remount-ro 0 1

Test if the drive can be mounted:

sudo mount /media/passport-4tb

If you see errors, remove the newly added lines from /etc/fstab and try again! If you reboot with this error happening your Pi will not come up properly and you’ll need to attach it to a monitor and keyboard.

If no errors were reported, allow the pi user to access the drive:

sudo chown pi:pi /media/passport-4tb

And test that you can actually write to it:

touch /media/passport-4tb/testfile
rm /media/passport-4tb/testfile

At this point, reboot to test that the drive is mounted properly:

sudo reboot

Wait for the system to come back up, ssh back and:

ls /media/passport-4tb

You should see lost+found.

Hard drive setup complete!

OpenVPN/Private Internet Access Setup

First install OpenVPN:

sudo apt-get install openvpn

We need to download some SSL certificates from Private Internet Access:

sudo mkdir -p /etc/openvpn/pia-configs
cd /etc/openvpn/pia-configs
sudo wget https://www.privateinternetaccess.com/openvpn/openvpn.zip
sudo cp crl.rsa.2048.pem ca.rsa.2048.crt /etc/openvpn

Create the OpenVPN configuration file:

sudo vim /etc/openvpn/pia-us-east.conf

Add the following:

dev tun
proto udp
remote us-east.privateinternetaccess.com 1198
resolv-retry infinite
cipher aes-128-cbc
auth sha1
remote-cert-tls server
auth-user-pass pia-login.conf
verb 1
reneg-sec 0
crl-verify crl.rsa.2048.pem
ca ca.rsa.2048.crt
script-security 2
#up /etc/openvpn/update-resolv-conf # intentionally commented out
#down /etc/openvpn/update-resolv-conf # intentionally commented out

Create a credentials file:

sudo vim /etc/openvpn/pia-login.conf

Add your username/password:


Deny read access from non-root users:

sudo chmod 600 /etc/openvpn/pia-login.conf

Set OpenVPN to start the pia-us-east connection by default:

sudo vim /etc/default/openvpn

Add a line with:


We’ll use CloudFlare for DNS. This is an important step since we aren’t relying on OpenVPN to update DNS servers (I couldn’t get it to work). If this isn’t done, OpenVPN can’t resolve domain names.

sudo vim /etc/dhcpd.conf

Add a line to the bottom:

static domain_name_servers=

Restart dhcpd and check that the changes were applied:

sudo /etc/init.d/dhcpcd restart
cat /etc/resolv.conf

You should see entries for and

We can now try to start OpenVPN. We need to load the changes made to /etc/default/openvpn first:

sudo systemctl daemon-reload

Now start OpenVPN:

sudo systemctl start openvpn

Check that the tun interface was created:


And verify you have an entry like this:

        inet  netmask  destination
        unspec 00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00  txqueuelen 100  (UNSPEC)
        RX packets 10185045  bytes 5262987527 (4.9 GiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 10933224  bytes 2755533996 (2.5 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 91016 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

Check that your IP has changed. Run this on your main work station, and on the Raspberry Pi and verify the IPs are different:

curl v4.ifconfig.co

At this point we can reboot and OpenVPN should come up on its own.

sudo reboot

After the Pi comes back up, try ifconfig and curl v4.ifconfig.co again and verify their output is the same as before the reboot.

OpenVPN setup complete!

iptables Setup

OpenVPN can crash, or an invalid config change could prevent it starting altogether. If that happens, Deluge will happily seed on another interface where your activity is visible. We can use iptables to firewall WAN traffic when OpenVPN is down.

First we’ll create a recovery script. In case things go wrong, this will allow you to clear the firewall and start over.

vim firewall-blank.sh

Add the following:

# Allow everything
iptables -P INPUT ACCEPT

# Flush existing rules
iptables -F INPUT
iptables -F OUTPUT
iptables -F FORWARD

Run it:

sudo sh firewall-blank.sh

Check it was applied:

sudo iptables -L -n

You should see output like this:

Chain INPUT (policy ACCEPT)
target     prot opt source               destination

Chain FORWARD (policy ACCEPT)
target     prot opt source               destination

Chain OUTPUT (policy ACCEPT)
target     prot opt source               destination

Now we will create another script for the real firewall:

vim firewall.sh

Add the following:

# Allow everything
iptables -P INPUT ACCEPT

# Flush existing rules
iptables -F INPUT
iptables -F OUTPUT
iptables -F FORWARD

# Allow established connections
iptables -A INPUT -m state --state RELATED,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT
iptables -A OUTPUT -m state --state RELATED,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT

# Accept all TUN connections (tun = VPN tunnel)
iptables -A OUTPUT -o tun+ -j ACCEPT
iptables -A INPUT -i tun+ -j ACCEPT

# Allow loopback device (internal communication)
iptables -A INPUT -i lo -j ACCEPT
iptables -A OUTPUT -o lo -j ACCEPT

# Allow all local traffic.
# IMPORTANT: Edit your IP address on the two lines below. For 192.168.1.x
# use ``.
iptables -A INPUT -s -j ACCEPT
iptables -A OUTPUT -d -j ACCEPT

# Allow traffic to Cloudflare DNS, this is key!
iptables -A INPUT -s -j ACCEPT
iptables -A OUTPUT -d -j ACCEPT
iptables -A INPUT -s -j ACCEPT
iptables -A OUTPUT -d -j ACCEPT

# Allow multicast DNS (eg: raspberrypi.local)
iptables -A INPUT -p udp --sport 5353 -j ACCEPT
iptables -A OUTPUT -p udp --dport 5353 -j ACCEPT

# Allow VPN establishment
iptables -A OUTPUT -p udp --dport 1198 -j ACCEPT
iptables -A INPUT -p udp --sport 1198 -j ACCEPT
iptables -A OUTPUT -p tcp --dport 1198 -j ACCEPT
iptables -A INPUT -p tcp --sport 1198 -j ACCEPT

# Allow traffic to PIA
# IMPORTANT: This **MUST** match the server name set in your pia config file
iptables -A INPUT -s us-east.privateinternetaccess.com -j ACCEPT
iptables -A OUTPUT -d us-east.privateinternetaccess.com -j ACCEPT

# Set default policies to log and drop all communication unless specifically allowed
iptables -P INPUT DROP
iptables -P OUTPUT DROP
iptables -P FORWARD DROP

Run the firewall script:

sudo sh firewall.sh

Verify the rules have been added:

sudo iptables -L -n

Let’s disable IPv6 too so we only have to manage one set of rules:

sudo vim /etc/sysctl.conf

Add the following line to the bottom of the file:

net.ipv6.conf.all.disable_ipv6 = 1

Check that you can access the world:

curl -L google.com

At this point the firewall is working, but it is not persisted on reboots. To solve that:

sudo apt-get install iptables-persistent
sudo sh -c 'iptables-save -c > /etc/iptables/rules.v4'

Let’s reboot:

sudo reboot

And verify the rules are still active:

sudo iptables -L -n

Firewall setup complete!

Deluge Setup

Now let’s setup Deluge. First install it:

sudo apt-get install deluged deluge-web deluge-console

We’ll use a dedicated system user to run the program:

sudo adduser --system --gecos "Deluge Service" --disabled-password --group --home /var/lib/deluge deluge

Create logging directories:

sudo mkdir -p /var/log/deluge
sudo chown -R deluge:deluge /var/log/deluge
sudo chmod -R 750 /var/log/deluge

Create a systemd unit to start/stop deluge-web:

sudo vim /etc/systemd/system/deluge-web.service

Add the following:

Description=Deluge Bittorrent Client Web Interface
After=network-online.target deluged.service


ExecStart=/usr/bin/deluge-web -l /var/log/deluge/web.log -L warning



We’ll also configure deluge-web to use the deluge user:

sudo mkdir /etc/systemd/system/deluge-web.service.d
sudo vim /etc/systemd/system/deluge-web.service.d/user.conf

Add the following:

# Override service user

Create a systemd unit to start/stop deluged:

sudo vim /etc/systemd/system/deluged.service

Add the following:

Description=Deluge Bittorrent Client Daemon


ExecStart=/usr/bin/deluged -d -l /var/log/deluge/daemon.log -L warning


# Time to wait before forcefully stopped.


We’ll also configure deluged to use the deluge user:

sudo mkdir /etc/systemd/system/deluged.service.d
sudo vim /etc/systemd/system/deluged.service.d/user.conf

Add the following:

# Override service user

Load the new configs:

sudo systemctl daemon-reload

Start deluged and deluge-web:

sudo systemctl start deluged
sudo systemctl start deluge-web

Now open your browser to http://raspberrypi.local:8112 and you should see the Deluge web interface. If that works, run the following to start the services on boot:

sudo systemctl enable deluged
sudo systemctl enable deluge-web

Now we will move Deluge configs to the USB hard drive. This way, if the Pi’s SD card ever becomes corrupt, the Deluge configuration is saved to more durable storage.

First shutdown Deluge:

sudo systemctl stop deluged
sudo systemctl stop deluge-web

Copy the existing configuration files to the USB drive:

sudo mkdir /media/passport-4tb/Deluge
sudo cp -rp /var/lib/deluge/.config/deluge /media/passport-4tb/Deluge/Config

Now we’ll use a bind mount to place these files in the location Deluge expects. First, move the old files out of the way, and create an empty directory:

sudo mv /var/lib/deluge/.config/deluge /var/lib/deluge/.config/deluge-old
sudo mkdir /var/lib/deluge/.config/deluge

Open up /etc/fstab again, and add the following (make sure to edit passport-4tb if you used another name):

/media/passport-4tb/Deluge/Config     /var/lib/deluge/.config/deluge/  none bind

Test that you can mount it:

sudo mount /var/lib/deluge/.config/deluge
sudo ls /var/lib/deluge/.config/deluge

Start Deluge again and it now uses the config files from the USB drive:

sudo systemctl start deluged
sudo systemctl start deluge-web

Now to configure Deluge to look on the USB drive.

First let’s create some directories:

sudo mkdir /media/passport-4tb/Deluge/Downloads \
  /media/passport-4tb/Deluge/Watch \

And allow the pi user and deluge group access:

sudo chown pi:deluge /media/passport-4tb/Deluge/Downloads \
  /media/passport-4tb/Deluge/Watch \

Back to the web interface at http://raspberrypi.local:8112.

  1. Click the Preferences button in the top navbar.
  2. Click Downloads on the left sidebar of the Preferences window.
  3. Set “Download to” to /media/passport-4tb/Deluge/Downloads.
  4. Leave “Move completed to” unchecked.
  5. Check “Copy of .torrent files to” and set it to /media/passport-4tb/Deluge/Torrents.
  6. Check “Autoadd .torrent files from” and set it to /media/passport-4tb/Deluge/Watch.
  7. Optional: If you want, check “Add torrents in Paused state”.

At this point Deluge should be fully setup! Reboot the Pi once more: that both services started:

sudo reboot

And verify both services started

sudo systemctl status deluged
sudo systemctl status deluge-web

And make sure you can still access the web interface at http://raspberrypi.local:8112.

A couple small conveniences before we wrap up:

cd /home/pi
ln -s /media/passport-4tb/Deluge/Downloads
ln -s /media/passport-4tb/Deluge/Watch

If you have a .torrent file on your work station, you can upload it and have it automatically added to Deluge:

scp ubuntu.iso.torrent pi@raspberrypi.local:Watch

Or to download a file:

scp pi@raspberrypi.local:Downloads/ubuntu.iso .

Deluge setup complete!